External drives have long been used for adding more storage space to Macs. They provide a cost-effective means to increase storage for media libraries and documents, as well as backup space.
External storage devices are seeing more and more use as primary startup drives, when there’s a need to expand space on the startup, or increase its relative performance over the internal drive that originally came with a Mac. The reason for this is a simple one: Apple has continued to make replacing an internal drive a difficult, if not impossible, task for most users.
Of course, there are Mac models, such as the new Mac Pro, where adding or replacing a drive is designed to be easy. There are other models, such as the iMac and Mac mini, where upgrading a drive is possible, but not recommended for the end user by Apple. And when it comes to recent MacBook models, you can pretty much forget about repairing or replacing a drive. Even the new 16-inch MacBook Pro has its SSD soldered directly to the motherboard, making replacing or upgrading the drive a no-go for most of us.
External Drives as Startup Devices
Because of the difficulty in replacing or upgrading an internal drive, using an external device may be a good choice. Using an external storage device as your startup may not only increase performance and storage space, but also benefit your wallet. It can prevent or delay the need to replace a Mac that, aside from issues with the internal startup drive, works well for you.
It can also reduce the cost when you purchase a new Mac. Instead of purchasing a custom configured Mac with a large startup drive at Apple’s premium prices, you can pick a stock configuration and use a larger external startup device while using the stock internal for other storage needs. Depending on the configuration, you could find yourself with nice savings.
Rocket Yard Guide to External Startup Devices
This will be a two-part Rocket Yard guide that explores how to use an external storage device as your primary startup device. You may find the need to do this because of a failure of your Mac’s current internal drive, because you have a need for additional storage space on the startup drive, a need for better performance from the startup drive, to save money on configuring a new Mac, or any combination of the above.
In Part One, we will look at:
- Examples of external devices you can use
- Connecting an external drive to your Mac
- How to boot from an external drive
In Part Two, we will cover:
- How to configure an external with a copy of the macOS
- What to do if the original internal startup drive is non-functional
- How to enable booting from an external device if your Mac is equipped with a T2 security chip
- What to do with the internal drive now that you’re booting from an external
- More about interface types
Example External Drives
External storage solutions come in a multitude of configurations; single, dual, and multi-bay, as well as non-RAID, RAID, and even RAID arrays that can be used in non-RAID configurations. There are also various types of interfaces to connect the drive to your Mac: USB 3, USB 3.1, USB 3.2, USB-C, Thunderbolt 2, and Thunderbolt 3. We’ll explore the type of configurations and interfaces later, in Part Two of this Rocket Yard guide. For now, let’s look at a few examples that would be good candidates for use as external startup drives:
Available in USB 3.1 and USB 3.2 Gen 2 configurations that can house a single M.2 NVMe SSD. Available in sizes from 240 GB up to 2 TB, as well as a DIY enclosure where you can bring your own M.2 NVMe SSD. Performance can range from 400 MB/s up to 980 MB/s, depending on the type of USB interface you choose.
When your primary concern is performance, this configuration can produce blazing-fast 2500MB/s thanks to the NVMe SSD and Thunderbolt 3 interface. It’s available in sizes from 500 GB to 2 TB.
The OWC Envoy Pro EX series of external drives impress with their performance at a very reasonable cost. Even the USB 3 version, at 400 MB/s, can outperform rotational startup drives, as well as many Fusion drives that lack sufficient free space. If you need performance, the Thunderbolt version is like having a rocket booster attached to your Mac.
This is the choice for those looking for a rugged and portable external drive that can hold up to 8 TB of storage and deliver the data at up to 2800 MB/s using the Thunderbolt 3 interface. Available in configurations from 1 TB to 8 TB, and includes a custom-fitted ballistic hard-shell case for taking the drive on the road, wherever it is needed.
Connecting the External Drive to the Mac
Aside from the connection type, there’s nothing really mysterious about hooking up an external to your Mac. Never the less, a couple of tips to note:
If the external can be both bus-powered (taking power from the connection to your Mac) as well as directly powered, opt for the direct power connection, at least in a desktop setup. Directly powering the external helps ensure a stable drive that is ready to go to work as soon as your Mac powers on.
Use good quality cabling and make sure there’s no strain on the cable or the plugs.
Do not use excessively long cables; keep the cable length appropriate for the setup.
Keep the setup neat; not just for visual aesthetics, but to ensure cables are secure and not prone to becoming disconnected if something should be moved or pushed around.
Shut down the Mac and make sure the external is powered off when making the initial connections.
Turn on the external before powering up your Mac.
How to Start Up From an External Drive
There are two ways to select the device your Mac will start up from.
You can use the System Preferences to select which device to start up from. When using this method, the device you select to start up from remains the active choice, even after restarting or shutting down.
You can also use the Mac’s startup manager to make a temporary selection of a device to start up from. When using this method, the startup device choice doesn’t stick; the next time you restart your Mac it will revert to the startup device choice set in the system preferences.
To set the startup device with System Preferences:
Launch System Preferences by selecting the System Preferences menu item from the Apple menu, or clicking its Dock icon.
In the System Preferences window that opens, select the Startup Disk preference pane.
Click the lock icon in the bottom left corner, and then provide your administrator credentials. Click the unlock button.
Icons representing the various bootable devices that are currently connected to your Mac will be displayed. Each icon will include the macOS version that’s installed on the device.
Make your selection by clicking on an icon.
You can choose to restart now by clicking the Restart button, or defer changing to the new startup disk until the next time you start your Mac up.
Click the Restart button or close the Startup Disk preference pane.
To use the Startup Manager to temporarily select the startup device:
Restart your Mac while holding down the option key.
Continue to hold the option key until you see the display change to show one or more icons of available startup devices.
Release the option key.
Use the arrow keys to select the device you wish to start up from this one time.
With the device highlighted, press the return or enter key.
The Mac will start up using the selected device.
We’ve covered the basics in part one of this Rocket Yard guide to using an external drive as your startup drive. For many, this may be enough to move ahead, choose an external, and start to set up and use your new startup device.
For those who wish for a bit more information, part two will provide additional details for setting up and configuring the external startup drive, as well as looking at some of the issues you may come across, including working with T2-equipped Macs that can prevent booting from an external. See you next time, for Using an External Drive as Your Startup Drive: Part 2.